【 民主中国首发 】  时间: 3/13/2008              

一叶知秋:奥运会对中国人权状况的影响

作者: 王天成 王天成

  (2008年3月3日在哥伦比亚大学的演讲,根据讲话稿翻译成中文)


谢谢克里斯•汤姆先生邀请我参加这个关于奥运会对中国人权之影响的讨论会。

此外,我还要感谢受难学者机构以及国际教育研究所学者拯救基金会。没有它们的帮助,此刻我没有在这里讲话的机会。

还要特别感谢黎安友教授和哥伦比亚大学人权研究中心的工作人员们。没有他们的帮助,此刻我没有在这里讲话的机会。

这是我1992年离开北京大学后第一次在教室里讲话。我曾是北大的一名法学讲师,但1992年10月,我永远离开了那所大学。我被捕了,因为我参予组建了一个反对党,中国自由民主党。我被监禁了5年,1997年10月释放。

自那以后,作为一个曾经入狱的持不同政见者,我在中国一直是个没有适当位置的难民。中国没有任何大学可以被允许给我一个教职。其他与我的资质相关的许多工作机会之门也关闭了,例如做律师或者法官,或者研究所的研究人员。

这些年来,我一直过着一种被警察严厉监控的生活。我的电话被窃听,行动自由经常受到限制或跟踪。

由于我的特殊背景,今天正好有一个与奥运相关的故事与大家分享。我将首先讲述这个故事,然后就奥运会对中国人权的影响做一个简要的一般性评述。

故事发生在2007年8月上旬,离一个国际性自行车赛10多天,那个车赛被认为是2008年北京奥运会的一项重要热身赛。

2007年8月上旬的一天,3名警察来找我。其中一人说:“王老师,您知道这个月18、19号有什么事吗?”

“不知道。什么事?”我好奇地问。

“奥运会的自行车热身赛。会经过离这里不远的一个地方,”他说。

“那很好呵,我带我儿子去看看。我儿子5岁了,就喜欢汽车和自行车,”我说。
然而,我意外的是,这位警官说:“那两天你能不能呆在家里不出去?”

“为什么?难道你们认为我会去搞破坏或者就地发表反政府演说?我为什么要那样做?”我不解地问。

“我们相信你,相信你不会,但上面不放心。如果你不愿意呆在家里,那我们就找个好地方带你去玩去,”警官说。

“不,我不想去玩,” 我说。

三位警察继续跟我谈,最后我同意留在家里,因为我实在不想与警察一起度假。

就在这天下午,我见到了一位路透社的记者,他是澳大利亚人。我把这个故事告诉了他,他也感到诧异和不解,因为离赛事还有10多天就布置,而且不过是热身赛。
我对他说:“你知道一句中国的成语‘一叶知秋’吗?”

“什么意思?”他说。

我跟他解释:“当你看见一片树叶从树上掉下来时,你就应该知道秋天要来了、秋天是什么样的。明年的奥运会就是这样的。像我这样的人,不被关在家里,就会被带走度假去了。”

“一叶知秋”,这个古老的中国成语,也是我今天在这里要再一次说的。

你们知道,在申办北京奥运会时,中国政府曾许诺改进人权状况。但实际情况现在并不是这样。政府从来没停止过侵犯人权,更不用说进行政治改革以改进人权状况了。相反,为了确保事情不受干扰、不出岔子,进一步加强了监视和控制。

我的估计是,下列6类人在奥运会期间会受到最严重的监视和压制——

第一、政治异议人士和人权活动者。目前已知的在押的中国政治活动分子,至少达1000人以上。3个月前,胡佳,一位知名人权活动分子,被捕。2月22日,在我的家乡湖南,泛蓝联盟的成员张子霖被判刑2年。

第二、基督教家庭教会领导人。在中国有两类基督教会,一类是政府支持的,另一类是家庭教会。据对华援助协会的报告,2007家庭教会领袖所受到的迫害比2006年上升了68.6%。最近,2008年2月,山东省21名家庭教会领袖被劳动教养,劳教是剥夺人身自由1至3年的处罚。2008年2月20日,40名内蒙古家庭教会领导人和同工被拘捕。

第三、法轮功成员。法轮功是一种独立的信仰与修炼团体,在中国拥有不少成员。1999年被禁,自那以来数以千计的法轮功修炼者遭到监禁,至少10人死于监禁中。

第四、不计其数的访民,他们到北京投诉地方官员的非法行为,希望中央政府能伸张正义。据博讯网2月24日报道,北京建设了新的针对访民的羁押场所。

第五、数量庞大的背井离乡、在城市工作的农民。在中国,他们被称为“农民工”,被认为是城市犯罪率上升的一个因素。他们每个人都要办暂住证。警察常常会在深夜闯入他们的住所检查身份,没有暂住证或身份证的人会被罚款或带走。

第六、记者和网民。据“记者无国界”的一份报告,中国目前关押着大约30名记者、50名网民。2001年北京申办奥运会的时候,政府就强化了对记者和网民的压制。2007年11月,中宣部下令媒体不准刊载与奥运有关的任何“负面消息”,例如空气污染、公共卫生等。

迄今为止,中国的绝大多数人都不知道他们的政府2001年申办奥运会时曾许诺改进人权状况,因为在中国没有任何媒体允许报道这一承诺。

上述6类人迄今所受监视、压制最严重,我确信,他们在今年夏天奥运期间也会受到最严重监视、压制。

我的结论是,就人权状况而言,北京奥运会对中国不是好事,而是一场巨大的灾难。

作为一个中国人,我热爱我的国家。我的确希望看到我的国家举办奥运会。但我不想看到奥运会在一个丝毫不尊重人类尊严的专制政府下进行。不幸的是,这样的事情很快就要发生了。


附英语原文

 A LEAF TELLS THE AUTUMN
OLYMPIC GAMES AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHINA

Thank Chris Tom for inviting me to this panel concerning the effects of the Olympic Games on Human Rights in China.

And also, I should thank Scholars at Risk Network, and Scholar Rescue Fund of the Institute of International Education. Without their help, I should not have had the chance to talk here.
My special thanks should go to Professor Andrew Nathan and the staff of Columbia Center for the Study of Human Rights. Without their help, I should not have had the chance to talk here, Columbia University.
This is the first time l give a talk in a classroom since I left Peking University in 1992. I was a law lecturer at Peking University, but in October of 1992, I left that University forever. I was arrested because I participated in the founding of an opposition party, the Liberal & Democratic Party of China. I was jailed for five years and released in October 1997.
Since then, as a once jailed dissident, I have been a displaced person in China. No university or college in China is allowed to offer me a teaching post. Doors of many other job opportunities related to my qualifications, e.g. a lawyer, a judge or a fellow of an academic institute are also closed to me.
Over all those years, though a law-abiding citizen, I have been living a life severely monitored by national security agents. My telephone has been tapped. And my motions of body have often been limited or followed.

Due to my special background, today I happen to have a story connected with the Olympic Games to share with you. I will first tell the story, and then give a brief general remark upon the impact of the Olympic Games on Human Rights in China.

The story took place in the early of August, 2007, more than ten days prior to an international bicycle race, which was considered as an important warm-up race of the Olympic Games in 2008.
On August 7, three security guys came to visit me. One of them asked me: “Mr. Wang, do you know what will happen on 18 and 19 this month?”
“No, what will it be?” I asked curiously.
“There will be a bicycle warm-up race of the Olympic Games. It will pass a place not far from here, ”he said.
“That will be fine. I will take my son to enjoy it. My son is five years old. He likes cars and bicycles very much,” I said.
To my surprise, the officer said: “ Today it is this matter that we come to discuss with you. Could you stay at home and not go out during these two days? ”
“Why? Do you think I will disrupt that race? Or I will give an anti-government speech on the spot? Why should I do that?” I asked in bewilderment.
“We trust you, and believe that you will not do that, but our superior authorities don’t trust.  If you do not want to stay at home, we will have to take you out to some nice place to have a holiday,” He said.
“No, I don’t want a holiday,” I replied.
The three police officers continued to negotiate with me, and finally I agreed to stay at home because I really didn’t want to enjoy a holiday with policemen.

Right in the afternoon that day, I met a reporter of Reuters, who was an Australian, and told him the story. He was also surprised and puzzled, because the sport was no more than a warm-up race of the Olympic Games, and it was more than 10 days away.
I said to the reporter: “Do you know a Chinese idiom, 一叶知秋,A Leaf Tells the Autumn?”
“What does it mean?” He asked.
I explained: “When you see a single leaf falling from the trees, you should know that the autumn is coming and what the autumn is. The Olympic Games next year will be like this. At that time, people like me will be under house arrest or be sent on holiday.”

The ancient Chinese idiom, that a leaf tells the autumn, is also what I want to say again today.

As you know, when trying to get the Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government had promised to improve the human rights conditions. But obviously this is not the case. The Chinese authorities never stop their abuse of human rights, let alone carrying out political reforms to improve the conditions. On the contrary, in order to make sure things are not disturbed or disrupted, they have been increasing monitoring and restrictions.

My estimation is that the following six categories of people will be monitored and restricted most heavily:

--Political dissidents and human rights activists. The names of political activists still jailed in China we know now amount to more than 1000. Three months ago, Hu Jia, a famous activist, was arrested. Zhang Zilin, an activist in my hometown Hunan Province, got a sentence of 2-year imprisonment on Feb 22.
-- Christian family church leaders. There are two kinds of Christian church in China: one is supported by the government, the other is family church. According to a report by China Aid Association, persecutions of family church leaders increased 68.6% in the year of 2007 compared to 2006. Recently, in February 2008, 21 family church members were sent to re-education through labor(劳动教养),a kind of punishment taking away body freedom for 1 to 3 years. Although actually equal to a fixed term sentence, it is decided by the police rather than the court.
--Falunggong practitioners. Falunggong is a new branch of Bhudism. It was banned in 1999, and since then several thousands of Falungong followers have been jailed and at least 100 have died in detention.
--Countless petitioners who go to Beijing to complain about the wrongdoings of local officials and ask the central government to render justice. It was reported by Boxun, a well-known
website, on Feb 24, new detention houses have been building in Beijing for this kind of visitors.
--mass of peasants who leave their hometowns and work or want to work in cities. In China, they are called “peasant-workers” and regarded as an element of the increase of crime in cities. Each of them must get a temporary residence card. In the night, the police often break in their houses to check their ID. Those who are without temporary residence card or ID may be fined or even taken away.
--Reporters and internet users. According to a report by Reporters without borders, about 30 journalists and 50 Internet users are currently detained in China. When Beijing was bidding for the Olympic Games in 2001, Chinese government intensified the repression toward journalists and internet users. With the games coming, the government is doing the same thing. In November 2007, the Propaganda Department ordered Chinese media not to carry any “negative” stories on matters connected with the Olympic Games, such air pollution and public health.

Until now, the great majority of people in China don’t know their government did promise in 2001 to improve human rights condition while it was trying to get the Olympic Games in Beijing, because no media in China has ever been allowed to report the promise.

Those six categories of people have been monitored and repressed the most heavily, and it will turn out, I am sure, that they will be also monitored and repressed the most heavily during the Olympic Games this summer.

My conclusion is that so far as the human rights situation is concerned, the Beijing Olympic Games is not a good thing but a big disaster for China.
As a Chinese, I love China. I really want to see my country host the Olympic Games. But I don’t want to see the games going under a tyrannical government that does not respect human dignity at all. Unfortunately, this will be happening soon.

 

关键字: 王天成
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