- 极权主义的中国特色 （九）
- Chinese Characteristics of Totalitarianism (9)
By Oliver Tao
(Pictures of the June 4th Massacre are from the website of Tiananmen Mothers and the June 4th Archives website)
(Pictures of the June 4th Massacre are from the website of Tiananmen Mothers and the June 4th Archives website)
Massacre: The deliberate and massive killing of 'undefensible human beings' is called massacre; although it does not include slaughter during war, it does include slaughter of incapacitated prisoners of war and civilians.
Holocaust: A more serious massacre with a certain scale is called a holocaust. Holocausts are usually acts of government, or sanctioned and acquiesced by governments; Holocausts are the bloodiest form of crime on the state apparatus, and it can fall into the following categories:
Class extermination: the removal and killing of class dissidents, or the total extermination of a social class;
Genocide: The removal and killing of a race, ethnic group, or nation;
Political genocide: the removal and killing of political dissidents and political opponents;
Religious Extermination: The eradication and killing of a certain pagan religion and infidels, or the eradication and killing of all religions and adherents of religions.
Popular extermination: A widespread act of extermination by a state against its own or foreign nationals. It does not refer to a particular class, ethnic group, political party, or religious; it is the killing of the population as a whole.
On June 4, 1989, in Beijing, the Chinese government mobilized field troops using tanks and machine guns to fire on unarmed citizens and students. It is completely in line with the above definition of "massacre", especially the definition of "Population extermination", that is, the killing of the population as a whole. June 4th was a downright massacre.
Crimes against humanity include the persecution of human beings, the abuse of human beings and the killing of human beings. There is no doubt that the June 4 massacre is a crime against humanity committed by the Chinese government using its state apparatus.
The Tiananmen Mothers website recorded 203 victims of the June 4 massacre. This is the data collected by the private sector, the data collected in dribs and drabs by the families of the deceased overcoming many obstacles, and it is still far from the actual number of victims. Since Chinese officials refuse to release real figures, the actual number of people killed must be much higher. Folk scholars' estimates of the death toll of the June 4 massacre range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, who killed 148 Shiite villagers in the village of Dujar in 1982, was convicted of crimes against humanity in 2006 and sentenced to death immediately.
Former Kosovo President Hashem Saatchi has been charged with crimes against humanity by the International Court of Justice in The Hague in connection with 100 murders of political dissidents.
In contrast to the previous example, calling the June 4 massacre a "massacre" and defining it as a crime against humanity is completely in line with international practice.
On the Tiananmen Mothers website, there are monuments to the victims of June 4:
No. 001 Jiang Jielian: Male, 17 years old when killed, young boy. In Muxidi, the bullet passed through the chest from the back and left, injuring the heart. He died after being sent to the Children's Hospital.
No. 002 Wang Nan: Male, aged 19, he was shot in the head at the south entrance of Nanchang Street and fell to the ground. Martial law troops forbid the ambulance team to rescue, died;
No. 003 Yang Minghu: Male, aged 42, on East Chang'an Avenue, he was shot by martial law troops, shot in the abdomen, and died;
No. 016 Duan Changlong: male, aged 24, was shot in the left heart aorta, killed by a small-caliber pistol at close range;
No. 017 Wang Weiping: Female, aged 25, was shot in the neck artery while rescuing the wounded near Muxidi;
No. 019 Wang Peiwen: Male, age 21, was run over by a tank at Liubukou;
No. 020 Dong Xiaojun: Male, aged 20, was run over by a tank at Liubukou;
No. 021 Yuan Li: Male, age 29, was shot in the throat of Muxidi, the bullet penetrated the chest, died...
Serial No. 023 Wu Guofeng: Male, aged 21, was shot four times in a row, one on the back of the head, and had an 8 cm bayonet blade on his abdomen;
No. 048 Lin Renfu: Male, age 30, a fresh doctoral graduate of Beijing University of Science and Technology, was run over by a tank in Liubukou;
No. 054 Tian Daomin: Male, age 22, was run over by a tank at Liubukou;
No. 078 Gong Jifang: Female, aged 19, in the Mood for Love. He was shot (explosive) in Liubukou's left arm and fell to the ground, his lungs were eroded by poisonous gas, and he was sent to the Beijing Emergency Center.
No. 102 Luo Wei: Male, aged 30, two bullets were taken out of the abdomen, one was Tom bomb, which exploded in the abdomen, injuring the liver, kidney, gallbladder, stomach and digestive tract. Guang'an Hospital used to make liver and stomach Repair surgery, died, died of acute renal failure;
No. 156 Du Guangxu: Male, age 24, was hit in the temple by martial law troops and died on the way to the hospital;
No. 167 Li Haocheng: Male, age 20, was hit by martial law troops twice, and the fatal one was located in the liver. He was sent to Tongren Hospital and died after being rescued.
Was the June 4 massacre an accidental event? Of course not, it is an inevitable link in the chain of totalitarian massacres, one in a series of massacres by the communist regime.
As early as the 1950s, just after the CCP seized power, in order to eliminate hostile forces, it launched a series of political campaigns, and the process and results of each political campaign pointed to the persecution, imprisonment and killing of ordinary people. ,for example:
The land reform movement, while eradicating China's rural landlords and gentry classes, and destroying traditional Chinese civilization and morality, caused about 1-5 million unnatural deaths due to the violent and bloody methods of the movement (during this process, a large number of landlords, rich peasants and family members were executed). This is a typical class extermination movement.
Suppression of counter-revolutionary movements, referred to as "repression of counter-revolutionary movements". According to the report of the Party History Research Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, this movement used the power of the government and the army to arrest 2.6 million people, suppress 1.576 million people, and execute 873,000 people. Folk scholars estimate that the anti-revolutionary movement executed about 1-2 million people. This is a typical class extermination and political extermination movement.
The Three-Anti-Five-Anti Movement, also known as the "Tiger Fighting Movement", is a purging campaign against the industrial and commercial circles to counter the "rampant attack" of the capitalists against the Party. Many capitalists and businessmen were forced to commit suicide, or were executed, or tortured to death. . This is a class cleansing movement.
The campaign to eradicate counter-revolutionaries, the full name of the campaign to eliminate hidden counter-revolutionaries, was the successor to the campaign to suppress counter-revolutionaries. More than 100,000 people were captured and 53,000 died unnaturally. This is the class extermination and political extermination movement.
In the anti-rightist movement, according to official data, 550,000 people have been persecuted, mainly intellectuals critical of the Chinese Communist Party. They have been labeled as "anti-Party", or have been reformed and imprisoned, or tortured to death, or have been wronged commit suicide, or be executed. Although the death toll is uncertain, a large number of intellectuals were killed everywhere. This is a typical genocide movement.
The Great Leap Forward Movement, also known as the "Three Red Flags Movement", was one of the main causes of the Great Famine in China in 1960. The Great Famine claimed between 20 and 45 million lives. Man-made famines are another form of slaughter. This is a crime against humanity.
The Four Cleansing Movement, a political movement launched in rural China to prevent and reverse revisionism, is also known as the "socialist education movement", "clean up politics, clean up economy, clean up organization, clean up thought". Violent incidents occurred frequently, and a total of 5.32 million people were purged, of which 78,000 were tortured to death. This is the first manifestation of the extinction of the people.
The Cultural Revolution, criticism fight, martial fight, political purges, the destruction of the four olds (smashing temples, smashing Taoist temples, and smashing churches), one attack and three anti-movements, an inspection of the May 16 counter-revolutionary groups, and a clean-up of the class ranks, resulting in about 100 million people being harassed. Persecution, at least 1.72 million to 20 million unnatural deaths. The most serious massacres in various provinces and places are:
The "Guangxi Cultural Revolution Massacre" not only killed the target of dictatorship, but even caused the phenomenon of cannibalism, with the number of victims reaching 100,000-150,000;
The "Guangdong Cultural Revolution Massacre", including the Yangjiang Massacre and the Danxian Massacre, killed about 4,600 people;
The "Hunan Cultural Revolution Massacre", including the Daoxian Massacre and the Shaoyang County Massacre, killed about 10,000 people;
"Jiangxi Cultural Revolution Massacre", including the massacres in Ruijin, Xingguo and Yudu counties, with about 1,000 casualties;
"Yunnan Cultural Revolution Massacre", including the case of advancing column in western Yunnan, the Zhao Jianmin spy case and the Shadian incident, the number of victims was about 8,800;
The "Sichuan Cultural Revolution Massacre", including the Wanzhou and Fuling incidents, killed about 693 people.
The Cultural Revolution was the culmination of class extermination, genocide, political extermination, religious extermination and popular extermination.
The "May 16th Counter-Revolutionary Group" movement was investigated and expanded. Millions of people were persecuted, and about 100,000 people died. This is an act of political genocide.
The riots in Tibetan areas and the military crackdown resulted in the death of 87,000 people. Belonging to genocide and religious genocide.
The "Inner People's Party" incident, the political purge of the "Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party", implicated nearly one million people, and the number of victims was about 20,000 to 100,000, mostly Mongolians. This is a big bloody case, a big injustice, this is a genocide.
Xinjiang re-education camps, detaining nearly one million people, carrying out linguistic and cultural cleansing of the Uyghur ethnic group, destroying national beliefs, forcibly separating children from their parents, forcibly sterilizing, accused by human rights organizations of "genocide" and 'demographic genocide' ".
The above is only a preliminary estimate of the massacres carried out by the Chinese state apparatus against ordinary people, and these massacres and bloody violence in China have a historical inertia, and they must be repeated every two or three years, or every three or five years. In totalitarian China, to maintain its rule, it is necessary to continue to create terror; And to continue to create terror, it is necessary to continue to kill the people. The creation of various pretexts for mass murder was seen as the main means. The Holocaust – > terror deterrence – > maintain its rule, and this is the logic of totalitarian bloody rule.
These massacres and bloody violence are premeditated state-machine crimes, most of which are crimes committed by the public power of the State and criminal offenses of the State. The CCP's abuse of state power and state instruments to purge, arrest, imprison, and slaughter the people on a large scale is a complete crime of public power; Even if it was judged according to the laws of China at that time, the barbarism, brutality, and inhumanity of these massacres could be criminalized under the criminal law, so it can be said with certainty that these massacres were all state criminal offenses. These massacres belong to the mass slaughters carried out by the state apparatus.
This series of massacres and bloody violence was guaranteed by the so-called socialist system, which provided the killing machine, the party organs and party members at all levels, who actively carried out the massacres and participated in the massacres, provided the soldiers, the polices, the national security and even the armed militias, prisons, and material support, so that massacres could be carried out. These massacres belonged to the institutional massacre.
This series of massacres and bloody violence was carried out under the ideology of the Communist Party, in the name of "revolution" and in the name of "political correctness." These huge fields of public opinion, formed in the name of revolution and political correctness, pushed the slaughter forward. Therefore, these massacres can also be described as ideological killings, or ideological massacres.
Worldwide, massacres under communist regimes have resulted in the unnatural deaths of a total of 85 million to 100 million people. The larger killings occurred mainly in three countries: the former Soviet Union, Communist China and Cambodia under the leadership of the Khmer Rouge; Smaller killings took place in North Korea, Vietnam, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. Whether the Holocaust took place in that country, it had a distinctly fascist character.
During Stalin's dark reign, the Soviet Union, according to the book "Record of Communism" by its Politburo commissioner Yakovlev, about 20 million people were killed; according to the book "The Great Terror" by the Soviet historian At the Hoover Institute at Stanford University, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was responsible for the deaths of at least 15 million people. The Red Terror that brought class enemies to justice on the spot, the genocide against the Cossacks, the political persecution campaign known as the “Great Purge”, the Gulag concentration camps, the NKVDs, the Great Purge of Mongolia, the Katyn Massacre, the Baltic Massacre, the Great Famine in Ukraine, including Putin's recent Butcha Massacre in Ukraine and so on. Countless people are killed. The number of people killed, from Stalin's Soviet Union to Putin's Russia, is about 30 million to 40 million.
During Cambodia's Khmer Rouge National Socialist rule, about 2.2 million people were executed or persecuted to death. There are about 150 killing fields and mass graves in the country, more than 20,000 cemeteries, and 1.1 million victims are buried. It can be described as a mountain of bones. In this small country of only 7 million people, one-third of the population has been persecuted to death, which is terrifying. The Khmer Rouge Communist Party (KRCP) not only killed Cambodians in their own country, but also crossed the border to kill Vietnamese, creating the Baju Massacre, killing 3,157 people and triggering the Vietnamese invasion. Khmer Rouge Fuehrer Khieu Samphan was convicted by a special court of Cambodian courts of crimes against humanity for carrying out the Red Terror and the Holocaust during his reign, with life imprisonment.
However, the sum of the crimes of the CPSU and the KRCP could not keep up with the bloodshed of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The frequency, intensity, depth, and breadth of the CCP's political campaigns are beyond the reach of the CPSU and the KRCP. The Communist Party of Soviet Union and the Cambodian Communist Party killed and persecuted about 40 million people, and the CCP killed and persecuted as many as 45-60 million. The killing of the populace by the CPSU and the KRCP focused on the physical annihilation, just as Hitler's Nazi fascists massacre of Jews. However, the CCP is not satisfied with this, but pays more attention to the "killing" of people's spirits and thoughts. The CCP's killings are a combination of physical and mental extinction. The extinction of the flesh, no matter how large, can only exterminate a part of the population; while the killing of spirit and thought can infinitely cover every corner of the country and the people as a whole, and the terror it creates envelops a silent suffocating country.
When reviewing the history of the Holocaust, it should be clear whether (1) it was a government action or a civilian action: (2) whether it was a wartime action or a peacetime action; (3) Distinguish which category the nature of slaughter belongs to: class genocide, genocide, religious extinction, political extinction, or popular extinction? Or total killing? (4) Does the target of the killing have defensive capabilities?
The massacres that took place in China were all (1) government actions; (2) peacetime; (3) Total killing, covering almost all categories of human extermination: class, ethnic, religious, political and mass as a whole (4) The target of the killing is defenseless. These features are sufficient to bring the Chinese government to international court for massacres and crimes against humanity.
Since World War II, massacre as a state action has been basically eliminated in democratic countries, which is the embodiment of civilizational progress. In civilized countries, although massacres occur from time to time, except for the slaughter caused by ethnic and religious conflicts among the people, there are only a few massacres directly manipulated by the government, such as the political purge campaign in Ethiopia and the Gwangju incident in South Korea. But the frequency of government-led massacres in China is staggering, compared with the fact that incidents around the world being dwarfed.
But where there is a great slaughter, history will be liquidated. The Massacre of June Fourth not only allowed the world to see the cruelty of the CCP, but also saw the resistance of the people. From the intensity of the rebellion, we see the hope of this nation.
The fire underground is rising, and as soon as the exit is found, it will spew out.
(The massacre data used in this article comes from books and the Internet.) The exact data, pending the unsealing of the national archives).